THE REFORMATION AND EDUCATION 197 of Cicero continued to dominate the course. So once more, as in the latter days of the Italian Renaissance, Ciceronianism was in the ascendant, and humanism, which had entered the schools as a vitalizing force, was already on the downward path towards a soulless pre-occupation with verbal forms. 4. CALVINISM AND EDUCATION All the while the followers of Luther were working out an educational system to meet the needs of the German States which had adopted his principles, similar movements were going on in other Protestant countries. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), for example, who led an independent revolt against Rome about the same time as Luther, published a short treatise on The Christian Education of Boys in 1523, which was the first book to be written on education from the Protestant point of view. Besides advocating the study of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and setting forth a systematic course of Scriptural instruction, he recommended nature study, arithmetic, music, and various forms of physical exercise. His efforts at educational reform, however, were cut short by his untimely death in battle, and nothing much came of them. A few years later, another educational movement began in Geneva which was destined to have momentous results, first in Switzerland, and afterwards in France, Holland, England, Scotland and America. The central figure in this movement was John Calvin (1509-1569), a man as.forceful in his own way as Luther, and far greater both as scholar and statesman. Born in Picardy, the son of a man who had risen from humble rank to a position of some dignity as an ecclesiastical lawyer, he went to the university of Paris at the age of fourteen as a student of arts, and under Mathurin Cordier and other teachers made marked progress in humanistic studies. Thence he proceeded somewhat against his own wishes to study law at Orleans and Bourges. But all the while his heart was in the humanities; and as soon as the way was clear he returned to them, and gave evidence of his remarkable abilities in a commentary on one of Seneca's works which he published at the age of twenty-two.